CHARACTERS IN ANNE'S LIFE AND TIMES
ANNE DE BRETAGNE 1476-1514 Duchess of Brittany, Queen of France
Anne had always been prepared to become Duchess. When she was about 12 her father died and she became ruler of Brittany, a major player in European politics. Marriage to King Charles VIII of France seemed a solution to its battles and financial woes. Left a widow at 21, she married his successor, Louis XII. As Queen, her most critical role was to give birth to a dauphin. Despite nine pregnancies, she failed, yet lived a rich and productive life, helping to lead France into the Renaissance, fostering the arts, knowledge, and religion. Her court was a center for European politics .
Cardinal Georges d’Amboise 1460-1510. Friend and advisor to Louis XII, his role was supportive, political and diplomatic, as well as religious.
ANNE DE BEAUJEU, 1460-1522 Duchess of Bourbon, also known as Anne of France. Sister of Charles VIII and Regent until he was old enough to assume the throne, then reluctant to relinquish power. Frequent rival of Anne.
Jacques de Beaune, 1445-1527 Merchant whose power and importance grew as he became Treasurer-General to Queen Anne and eventually chief Financial Officer for François I.
Anne Boleyn. 1502-1536 Lady-in-waiting to Mary Tudor and Queen Claude until she returned to England and court of Henry VIII.
CHARLES VIII, 1470-1498 King of France, Anne’s husband. Frequently at war, first with Brittany, then in Italy, in attempt to gain crowns of Naples and Milan. Died at 28, childless, after hitting his head on his way to watch a tennis match.
CLAUDE, 1499-1524 Daughter of Anne and Louis XII. Queen of France and Duchess of Brittany. Often a political pawn. Married to François d’Angoulême who inherited the crown of France when Louis died, so she became Queen and achieved the goal her mother did not: her many pregnancies produced a successor, King Henri II, and she was grandmother of three kings.
Michel Colomb, 1430-1513 Master sculptor of Tours. He designed and supervised the tomb of Anne’s parents and was a major influence on other French artists.
Madame Francoise de Dinan. 1436-1499 Governess, then Councilor to Anne who later joined a plot against her.
FRANÇOIS II, 1435-1488 Duke of Brittany. Anne's father and last Duke.
Henry VIII. 1491-1547 King of England. Brother of Mary Tudor
LOUIS XII, 1462-1515 King of France. Ascended to throne and married Anne after Charles VIII died. Known as “father of his people,’ he did a great deal to help his country but his invasions of Italy to claim other thrones were failures. From his sojourns in Italy he learned to appreciate its arts and letters, and brought home libraries, craftsmen, and artists, including Leonardo da Vinci.
Louise de Savoie 1477-1531 Mother of François I and Marguerite d’Angoulême. After the death of her husband she often lived in the court of Louis XII and groomed her son to be king. An educated, smart, and sometimes devious woman, she was jealous of Anne in many ways, but felt superior because she had a son who would and could become king.
Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli 1469-1527 Italian writer, political scientist, philosopher, statesman, diplomat who met with Louis XII several times in attempts to improve relations between Italy and France.
MARGUERITE D’ ANGOULÊME (de Navarre) 1492-1549 Daughter of Louise de Savoie, Sister of François I. Married Charles d’Alençon and Henry de Navarre. Like her mother, for many years she lived to support her brother’s position. A brilliant woman and writer, as she matured she was involved in politics and religion, and highly respected.
Marguerite of Austria. 1480- 1530 Daughter of Maximilian. Lived in French court as a child, since her betrothal at the age of two to Charles VIII. When he decided to marry Anne of Brittany, she was sent back to Austria. Maximilian, attempting to ally with Spain, arranged with Ferdinand and Isabella for Marguerite to marry their son John and for his son Philip to marry their daughter Juana.
MARGUERITE DE FOIX, 1453-1486. Second wife of François II, mother of Anne and Isabeau.
MARY TUDOR. 1494-1558. Sister of Henry VIII. Third wife of Louis XII.
Maximillian of Austria. 1459-1519. King of Germany, King of the Romans, Archduke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor. Married by Proxy to Anne 1490. Father of Marguerite of Austria.
Jean Meschinot, Household poet and Master of the Court
Maréchal Philippe de Montauban. 1455-1513 Councilor to Duke of Brittany and then his daughter Anne’s closest advisor.
Ofelia Devora Amador-Espinosa. Medical advisor to Anne. Forced to leave Spain after her physician father , a “New Christian,” was killed in the Inquisition.
François de Paule. 1416-1507. Hermit-Priest and Holy Man thought to have great powers.
RENÉE, Daughter of Anne and Louis XII. 1510-1575
LOUIS XI, King of France. 1423-1483. Father of Charles VIII, Anne de Beaujeu and Jeanne Valois. Known as “the Spider King” as much for his webs of intrigue as for his physical appearance.
JEANNE DE VALOIS. 1465-1505 Daughter of Louis XI, sister of Charles VIII and Anne de Beaujeu. First wife of Louis XII.
Etienne de Vesc. 1445-1501 As a member of the court of Louis XI, he was and remained a strong influence on Charles VIII and encouraged him to invade Italy.
Leonardo da Vinci. Artist, 1452-1519 resident at court of François I, where he died.